Fork this term
Forking concepts is the process of separating the senses, or variations, in the meaning of a term.
This process should be used sparingly, and the ability to fork a term is the sole provenance of the curator.
Asserted relationships to other concepts
Tasks that are asserted to measure iconic memory
"Initial definition from http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Iconic%20Memory"
NPicchetti (about two years ago)
Definition contributed by BGregory about three years ago:very brief sensory memory of some visual stimuli, that occur in the form of mental pictures. (from alleydog.com)REVISION 1
Definition contributed by SAdministrator about four years ago:No definition submitted yetView Term Event Log
Term Event Log
2011-05-04 BGregory: BGregory updated the definition for iconic memory. [view the changes at http://cognitiveatlas.org/term/iconic_memory]
2011-05-04 NPicchetti: Added new topic to discussion
2010-05-12 BGregory: BGregory updated the definition for iconic memory. [view the changes at http://www.cognitiveatlas.org/term/iconic_memory]
Term BibliographyNo studies have been associated yet.
Nature.com Literature MatchesMatches have been found on Nature.com for iconic memory:
Ralph Norman Haber
Scientific American (1970)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0570-104 [view abstract]
It depends on whether what we see is pictorial (scenes, photographs and so forth) or linguistic (words, numbers and so on). Experiments indicate that the linguistic memory is different from the pictorial
VINCENT DI LOLLO
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/267241a0 [view abstract]
The experimental technique7 used a computer-driven oscilloscopic display (gridless Tektronix 602 equipped with ultrafast P15 phosphor) consisting of a square matrix of 25 dots arranged in five rows and columns. One of the 25 dots, chosen randomly on every trial, was not plotted.
Scientific American (1968)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0968-204 [view abstract]
Light enables us to see, but optical images on the retina are only the starting point of the complex activities of visual perception and visual memory
Edward K. Vogel, Andrew W. McCollough, Maro G. Machizawa
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04171 [view abstract]
The capacity of visual short-term memory is highly limited, maintaining only three to four objects simultaneously. This extreme limitation necessitates efficient mechanisms to select only the most relevant objects from the immediate environment to be represented in memory and to restrict irrelevant items from consuming capacity. Here we report a neurophysiological measure of this memory selection mechanism in humans that gauges an individual's efficiency at excluding irrelevant items from being stored in memory. By examining the moment-by-moment contents of visual memory, we observe that selection efficiency varies substantially across individuals and is strongly predicted by the particular memory capacity of each person. Specifically, high capacity individuals are much more efficient at representing only the relevant items than are low capacity individuals, who inefficiently encode and maintain information about the irrelevant items present in the display. These results provide evidence that under many circumstances low capacity individuals may actually store more information in memory than high capacity individuals. Indeed, this ancillary allocation of memory capacity to irrelevant objects may be a primary source of putative differences in overall storage capacity.
J. Jay Todd, René Marois
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature02466 [view abstract]
At any instant, our visual system allows us to perceive a rich and detailed visual world. Yet our internal, explicit representation of this visual world is extremely sparse: we can only hold in mind a minute fraction of the visual scene. These mental representations are stored in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Even though VSTM is essential for the execution of a wide array of perceptual and cognitive functions, and is supported by an extensive network of brain regions, its storage capacity is severely limited. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show here that this capacity limit is neurally reflected in one node of this network: activity in the posterior parietal cortex is tightly correlated with the limited amount of scene information that can be stored in VSTM. These results suggest that the posterior parietal cortex is a key neural locus of our impoverished mental representation of the visual world.
British Politics (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/bp.2009.4 [view abstract]
This paper seeks to consider the New Labour project using insights drawn from a growing literature on temporality. The paper first explores New Labour's partisan and complex mobilisation of memory. It is argued that the disarticulation of the party from its past was integral to the notion of the Third Way and initially served to recast the identity of the party. However, as New Labour evolved the mobilisation of memory shifted to generate support for its contentious programme of modernisation. New Labour also held as distinctive and as politicised a view of the present as it did of the past. Its construction of its present is explored, particularly its claims to present a measured response to a new hyperactive economic, social and political epoch and its record in accelerating the speed at which politics is conducted. The paper concludes by identifying how these constructions of past and present converge and offer explanation for the difficulties in identifying the legacy of Tony Blair, and more broadly the absence of teleology in the New Labour project.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/426784a [view abstract]
Plant physiology: Needles point to pollution Plant Cell Environ. 26 , 1929–1939 (2003) The iconic shape of conifers — a single vertical main trunk with minor side branches — is distorted by exposure to air pollution. According to M.
Linda M Austin
postmedieval: a journal of medieval cultural studies (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pmed.2011.1 [view abstract]
This essay analyzes acute, individual nostalgia recorded in three examples of nineteenth-century medievalisms. As each example shows, the nostalgic moment involves primary (rather than secondary) and affective (rather than cognitive) memory – a memory of motor-sensory reception. A comparison of the nostalgia in Ann Radcliffe's tour of Hardwick Castle in 1794 and Thomas Carlyle's medieval interlude in Past and Present (1843) reveals the distinctive mnemonic component of depathologized nostalgia and shows why manifestations of it could entail such different affects and emotions. The discourse surrounding the nineteenth-century Gothic revival in architecture led by A.W.N. Pugin and later by Charles Eastlake shows, further, that Radcliffe's proved the more exemplary form of medievalism. Instead of a symbology laden with specific religious content meant to engineer a nostalgic reversion, the gothic revival in Eastlake's history developed into a formalistic mode that would engage an appreciation for a concocted Middle Ages based in primary memory.
Mrim Boutla, Ted Supalla, Elissa L Newport, Daphne Bavelier
Nature Neuroscience (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn1298 [view abstract]
Short-term memory (STM), or the ability to hold information in mind for a few seconds, is thought to be limited in its capacity to about 7 ± 2 items. Notably, the average STM capacity when using American Sign Language (ASL) rather than English is only 5 ± 1 items. Here we show that, contrary to previous interpretations, this difference cannot be attributed to phonological factors, item duration or reduced memory abilities in deaf people. We also show that, despite this difference in STM span, hearing speakers and deaf ASL users have comparable working memory resources during language use, indicating similar abilities to maintain and manipulate linguistic information. The shorter STM span in ASL users therefore confirms the view that the spoken span of 7 ± 2 is an exception, probably owing to the reliance of speakers on auditory-based rather than visually based representations in linguistic STM, and calls for adjustments in the norms used with deaf individuals.
Comparative European Politics (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/cep.2010.11 [view abstract]
The role of symbolism in European integration provides one way of answering Craig Calhoun's 2003 call in Comparative European Politics for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies. The article argues that our understanding of the integration process and the constitution of the European Union (EU) is furthered by broadly studying symbolic forms in a multiperspectival way. In contrast to much emphasis on heroic symbolic icons, the article studies more banal processes of symbolic construction that provide a deeper understanding of the symbolisation of European integration and enrich European studies more broadly. The article sets out how such processes could include the roles of physical icons such as maps or places, performative rituals such as days or museums, or discursive taboos such as mottos or texts. In this way the study of symbolism in European integration suggests a means of understanding how the EU becomes constituted as a political reality – how it is ‘always already there and still in formation’.
Jonathan H. Klein
Journal of the Operational Research Society (1994)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jors.1994.137 [view abstract]
This paper discusses the practice and process of OR in the light of an understanding of human information processing as developed in the field of cognitive psychology. A picture of the OR process which sets the context of the discussion is presented. This picture identifies internal, mental, models possessed by participants in an OR study, and the external models which they build and use. A brief description of human information processing is provided. The implications of this aspect of humanity for the OR process are discussed, and tentative suggestions concerning the nature and context or OR modelling emerge in the course of this discussion.
Bruno J. Strasser
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/422803a [view abstract]
Collective memory links the past to the future in science as well as history.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/4371238a [view abstract]
Hans Joachim Schellnhuber's map of global ‘tipping points’ in climate change.
postmedieval: a journal of medieval cultural studies (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pmed.2013.15 [view abstract]
This essay argues that the Middle English defaute, signifying both lack and loss, characterizes the work of mourning in Chaucer’s The Book of the Duchess. Crucial to memorialization are the interplays between the poem’s articulations of toponyms and its figurations of ‘White’ as simultaneously a deceased body of feminine beauty and a virtual map of courtliness. For the survivor, recollection and writing are acts of consolation through the non-linear and non-geometric topology of time and space.
Michael P. Stryker
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/360301a0 [view abstract]
How do we recognize and remember complex visual objects? Experiments on monkeys by Fujita et al., described on page 343 of this issue1, suggest that a moderate-sized collection of almost iconic figures may be the alphabet in which our visual memories are written.
Latino Studies (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/lst.2010.34 [view abstract]
Catherine S. RamírezDuke University Press
C Fred Alford
Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pcs.2012.28 [view abstract]
Not usually considered a trauma theorist, D.W. Winnicott helps to explain how trauma, an intensely personal experience, can be understood as a social and political phenomenon as well. A Winnicottian perspective on trauma is contrasted with that of Cathy Caruth, who also sees trauma as a political and historical event, but whose account of trauma lacks Winnicott's inwardness and depth. Why this is a failing in her account is considered.
Ghosh Shantanu, Basu Amrita, Khushu Subash, Kumaran Senthil
Journal of International Relations and Development (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jird.2012.23 [view abstract]
International relations has begun to take seriously the study of emotions, just as it has long acknowledged the role of collective memory in shaping politics. But the role of nostalgia as a potential driver of progressive political change has been little considered. This article engages the possibility of an ironic nostalgia for shoring up the multicultural project. Through examining the ironic potential in two contemporary popular Canadian cultural artefacts — Molson Canadian's ‘I am Canadian’ commercial and Douglas Coupland's Souvenir of Canada — the article suggests that assimilationist and separationist impulses may actually bolster the integrationist goals of multiculturalism. Contra nostalgia's critics, the article suggests that dominant groups in society may need emotional space to mourn a cognitively simpler past in order to embrace a more complex present.
Richard I Shader, Daniel Dreyfuss, John R Gerrein, Jerold S Harmatz, Shelley J Allison, David J Greenblatt
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (1986)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/clpt.1986.90 [view abstract]
Seven healthy subjects received oral placebo, 1.5 mg lorazepam, or 3.0 mg lorazepam in a single-dose, three-way crossover study. Plasma lorazepam concentrations and subjects' self-rated sedative effects were evaluated at multiple points during 24 hours after each dose. Information acquisition and recall was studied by use of a 16-item word list at 3 and 24 hours after dosing. Lorazepam plasma concentrations were proportional to dose. Self-rated sedation was maximal 2 to 3 hours after lorazepam dosing, persisted for 8 hours, and was dose dependent in intensity; no significant sedation occurred with placebo. At 3 hours after placebo dosing, subjects learned a mean 96% of words presented during six trials; this was reduced to 79% and 62% after lorazepam, 1.5 and 3.0 mg, respectively (F = 6.2; P < 0.02). Twenty-four hours after placebo, subjects recalled 92% of words presented the previous day, then improved to 99% after six relearning trials. After 1.5 and 3.0 mg lorazepam, however, only 52% and 44% of words were initially recalled from the previous day. Thus single oral doses of lorazepam within the therapeutic range produce dose-dependent sedation and impairment of information acquisition and recall.
Feminist Review (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.fr.9400124 [view abstract]
Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pcs.2100130 [view abstract]
This paper examines the psychic topography of identities of belonging for their sustainability in a plural world. By drawing on Freud's Moses and Monotheism, I will think about how collective identities are symbolic reconstructions of traumatic pasts and therefore foreclose their hybrid or cosmopolitan origins. While such insight demands a politic of generosity that considers the psychic “necessities” of stable racial identities, it also demands that we be aware of how the psychic mechanisms of survival, and the narratives and the ontologies they produce, might no longer serve their communities, or the communities with which they come into contact, well. Dissatisfied with Edward Said's postmodern/postcolonial response to the Israeli/Palestinian conflict in Freud and the Non-European, this paper offers a viewpoint that imagines political responses from the affective site of human loss and injury.
Shintaro Funahashi, Matthew V. Chafee, Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/365753a0 [view abstract]
We examined the activity of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Fig. la), in two rhesus monkeys trained on a compound oculomotor delayed-response task (Fig. \b), in which on some trials, deferred saccades were directed to the location signalled by the visual cue (standard ODR task), whereas on other trials saccades were made in the opposite direction (anti-saccade oculomotor delayed response, AS-ODR). On anti-sac-cade trials, the monkeys learned to override the prepotent tendency to look toward the location of the remembered visual stimulus.
Francis Crick, Christof Koch
Scientific American (1992)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0992-152 [view abstract]
It can now be approached by scientific investigation of the visual system. The solution will require a close collaboration among psychologists, neuroscientists and theorists
Latino Studies (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/lst.2010.23 [view abstract]
This article discusses representations of the “Afro-Cuban-occupied house” in Cuban-American autobiographical narratives of a 1990s return to Cuba. A trope in which island Afro-Cubans inhabit houses once owned or lived in by white Cuban-Americans, the Afro-Cuban-occupied house appears repeatedly in Cuban-American literary and film texts during the period. The article argues that the trope, more than another example of “literary Afro-Cubanness,” discloses Cuban-American whiteness and its constitutive element, privilege, thus inviting Cuban-American literary and cultural studies to engage in conversations along the lines of a critical Latino whiteness studies.
Francis Crick, Christof Koch
Scientific American (2002)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0402-10sp [view abstract]
It is Now Being Explored Through the Visual System—Requiring a Close Collaboration Among Psychologists, Neuroscientists and Theorists
Feminist Review (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.fr.9400302 [view abstract]
This paper examines the plays of African-American playwright Adrienne Kennedy, Funnyhouse of a Negro (1962) and The Owl Answers (1963), which remain important for their engagement with notions of African-American identity, resistance and agency through their attention to mixed race female characters or mulattas who experience bodily and psychological traumas that demonstrate the abuse of the colonized on a deeply visceral level. Kennedy's plays have remained controversial because of their failure to comply with the nationalistic orientation of the Black Arts Movement (BAM) of 1960s America. I aim to examine these plays through a framework of postcolonial-feminist performance analysis that finds its way back to histories of colonization and slavery, enabling through such returns, a compelling critique of the manoeuvrings of racial hierarchies and power imbalances. As well, I argue that Kennedy's protagonists are de-essentialized fractured beings who fail to embody either White superiority or Black nationalist pride, as they oscillate between two polarities. Such failure (on the part of Kennedy's mulattas) allows for a strategic de-essentialization of identity that interrogates fixed categorization. As well, through a form that is fluid, fragmented and blurs the distinctions among history, memory, space and time, her works impart political agency to the characters and enable an empowered sense of the ‘self-in-process.’
María del Carmen Martínez
Latino Studies (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/lst.2009.23 [view abstract]
In this essay, I examine the work of Gustavo Pérez Firmat, a well-published, exile-identified Cuban-American writer. In many ways, his Next Year in Cuba: A Cubano's Coming-of-Age in America and his Life on the Hyphen: The Cuban American Way are illustrative of the exile-imagined nation. In these texts, Pérez Firmat, like many exile writers, locates the “real” Cuba in a grand past and a triumphant future – a future without Castro. He employs a disturbing sort of erasure that claims Cuba for “real” Cubans, that is, those elites who left after the revolution. To a startling degree, Pérez Firmat participates in the acutely gendered dimensions of Cuban exile-community nationalism1 and politics, even as he constructs a complex sense of biculturated identity. His work, which includes essay, criticism, fiction and poetry, continues to configure Cuba as a mother – often fearsome and castrating. However, Pérez Firmat defines Cuban and Cuban-American identity not merely as a matter of male honor, but as a matter of white, male privilege and unquestioned, hyper-heterosexual masculinity. In Pérez Firmat's work, maternal bodies – coded as monstrous or as part of Cuba's oceanic landscape itself – serve to illustrate a sense of emasculation and powerlessness.
Alicia Gaspar de Alba
Latino Studies (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600002 [view abstract]
Susie Pryor, Sanford Grossbart
Place Branding and Public Diplomacy (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.6000080 [view abstract]
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to theoretical development in place branding in two ways. First, we seek to refine the terms place brand and place branding, and differentiate these from other commonly used marketing terms. Secondly, we seek to distinguish place branding processes from contemporary branding models in four key areas. These areas, identified through a literature review, include product development, brand identity, brand building activities, and brand management. Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study conducted in a central business district (CBD) in the Midwest United States, we tentatively suggest how socio-cultural features of places affect the development of place brands. A long-term field investigation of a Midwestern American Main Street is presented in an extended case study format. Participant observation, depth and field interviews, and secondary data collection are the primary methods employed. This study challenges the view that place brands are developed and managed by a subset of actors drawn from local industry and tourist offices, suggesting how the creation of a place brand may emerge in communities of place. In this study, marketplace actors co-produced marketplace meanings, but disagreed about the valence of these. There were tensions and inconsistencies in actors’ views about development of the CBD in economic, political, social, and cultural ways. Yet, there were socially acceptable variations in marketplace meanings because, as it has in other settings, the social structure has fostered tolerance or reconciliation of differences. Our data suggest that place brands are socially and culturally embedded, and co-created and reified by social actors. Unlike traditional brands, place brands may be sufficiently malleable to support varied brand interpretations. It is the multifaceted and social nature of place brand identities that may make conventional branding models insufficient for place branding efforts. This paper was designed to prompt interest in additional theoretical scholarship as it relates to place branding, and may be of interest to place marketers, rural economists, city planners, and economic development agencies for its focus on sociological aspects of small city commercial centres. Key findings in the place branding literature are reviewed and directions for further theoretical development of a model of place branding are suggested.
Mats Urde, Stephen A Greyser, John M T Balmer
Journal of Brand Management (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2550106 [view abstract]
This paper articulates a concept of ‘heritage brands’, based primarily on field case research and studies of practice. We define brand heritage as a dimension of a brand's identity found in its track record, longevity, core values, use of symbols and particularly in an organisational belief that its history is important. A heritage brand is one with a positioning and value proposition based on its heritage. The work grew from our lengthy study of monarchies as corporate brands. We describe how to identify the heritage that may reside in a brand and how to nurture, maintain and protect it, particularly through the management mindset of brand stewardship to generate stronger corporate marketing.
Hsin-I Liao, Daw-An Wu, Neil Halelamien, Shinsuke Shimojo
Scientific Reports (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep02228 [view abstract]
Delivering transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) shortly after the end of a visual stimulus can cause a TMS-induced ‘replay’ or ‘visual echo’ of the visual percept. In the current study, we find an entrainment effect that after repeated elicitations of TMS-induced replay with the same visual stimulus, the replay can be induced by TMS alone, without the need for the physical visual stimulus. In Experiment 1, we used a subjective rating task to examine the phenomenal aspects of TMS-entrained replays. In Experiment 2, we used an objective masking paradigm to quantitatively validate the phenomenon and to examine the involvement of low-level mechanisms. Results showed that the TMS-entrained replay was not only phenomenally experienced (Exp.1), but also able to hamper letter identification (Exp.2). The findings have implications in several directions: (1) the visual cortical representation and iconic memory, (2) experience-based plasticity in the visual cortex, and (3) their relationship to visual awareness.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/460572a [view abstract]
The Western public's misapprehension that genius in science is always male and caucasian is partly a legacy of Victorian politics, says Christine MacLeod.
Feminist Review (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.2010.6 [view abstract]
Amy M. DavisJohn Libbey Publishing
Nature Biotechnology (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt0804-964 [view abstract]
Flexible parallel-processing computer chip technology speeds up stochastic simulation of cellular biochemical systems.
Nature Chemistry (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchem.183 [view abstract]
There are many different versions of the periodic table, but one among them reigns supreme. Michelle Francl ponders on why chemists put elements in boxes.
The American Journal of Psychoanalysis (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.ajp.3350013 [view abstract]
The terrorist nature of the attacks on September 11th, the number of deaths on American soil and the direct involvement of society as virtual eyewitnesses of the events of that day had a traumatizing impact on the cultural consciousness. The interpersonal, socio-cultural manifestations of traumatic grief are explored through an analysis of the creation and transformation of its national heroes, the New York City firefighters, in the public mind over time. Mechanisms of identification, dissociation and splitting were manifested through the erection of physical and social boundaries around 9/11, which allowed for idealization at a safe distance followed by de-cathexis when the collective sought to abort the mourning process and overcome the pain and helplessness of traumatic grief by going to war.
Feminist Review (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.2011.73 [view abstract]
Using, as a point of departure, Tim Lott's recent autobiography where he attempts to make sense of his mother's suicide of 1988 through a reconstruction of his family genealogy, this article tries to map the production of gendered, classed, and racialized subjects and subjectivity in west London. It addresses the tension between Lott's discourse of his own white working-class boyhood during the 1970s where questions of ‘race’ are all but absent, and the racialized ‘commonsense’ that pervades the interviews with other local white contemporaries of Lott and his parents. These narratives are analysed in relation to the socio-economic context and the political activism of the period. Theoretically, it analyses the ‘diaspora space’ of London/Britain, interrogating essentialist ‘origin stories’ of belonging; reaching out to a glimmer on the horizon of emerging non-identical formations of kinship across boundaries of class, racism and ethnicity; and exploring the purchase of certain South Asian terms – ‘ajnabi’, ‘ghair’ and ‘apna/apni’ – in constructing a nonbinarized understanding of identification across ‘difference’.
Duncan Shaw, Graham McGregor
Knowledge Management Research & Practice (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/kmrp.2010.7 [view abstract]
While most of the research in Knowledge Management (KM) has focused on business communities, there is a breadth of potential applications of KM theory and practice to wider society. This paper explores the potential of KM for rural communities, specifically for those that want to preserve their social history and collective memories (what we call heritage) to enrich the lives of others. In KM terms, this is a task of accumulating and recording knowledge (using KM techniques such as story-telling and communities of practice) to enable its retention for future use (by interested people perhaps through KM systems). We report a case study of Cardrona, a valley of approximately 120 people in New Zealand's South Island. Realising that time would erode knowledge of their community a small, motivated group of residents initiated a KM programme to create a legacy for a wider community including younger generations, tourists and scholars. This paper applies KM principles to rural communities that want to harness their collective knowledge for wider societal gain, and develops a community-based framework to inform such initiatives. As a result, we call for a wider conceptualisation of KM to include motives for managing knowledge beyond business performance to accommodate community (cKM).
Andre F Marquand, Sara De Simoni, Owen G O'Daly, Steven CR Williams, Janaina Mourão-Miranda, Mitul A Mehta
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2011.9 [view abstract]
Stimulant and non-stimulant drugs can reduce symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The stimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) and the non-stimulant drug atomoxetine (ATX) are both widely used for ADHD treatment, but their differential effects on human brain function remain unclear. We combined event-related fMRI with multivariate pattern recognition to characterize the effects of MPH and ATX in healthy volunteers performing a rewarded working memory (WM) task. The effects of MPH and ATX on WM were strongly dependent on their behavioral context. During non-rewarded trials, only MPH could be discriminated from placebo (PLC), with MPH producing a similar activation pattern to reward. During rewarded trials both drugs produced the opposite effect to reward, that is, attenuating WM networks and enhancing task-related deactivations (TRDs) in regions consistent with the default mode network (DMN). The drugs could be directly discriminated during the delay component of rewarded trials: MPH produced greater activity in WM networks and ATX produced greater activity in the DMN. Our data provide evidence that: (1) MPH and ATX have prominent effects during rewarded WM in task-activated and -deactivated networks; (2) during the delay component of rewarded trials, MPH and ATX have opposing effects on activated and deactivated networks: MPH enhances TRDs more than ATX, whereas ATX attenuates WM networks more than MPH; and (3) MPH mimics reward during encoding. Thus, interactions between drug effects and motivational state are crucial in defining the effects of MPH and ATX.
Catherine De Lorenzo
Urban Design International (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.udi.9000146 [view abstract]
Sydney is shaped by water – the ocean at its eastern edge, the harbours and bays that define its centre, and the tracery of rivers and dams that constitute its catchment area to the west. Much public art has made use of this elemental medium to transform or anchor experiences of place. While some of the post-WWI and WWII spectacular monuments used water to commemorate Australian experiences of war in Europe and North Africa, recent public art has traded global imaginaries in densely urban precincts for a re-engagement with place, nature and ecology at the edge of urban and suburban settings. This paper will investigate means by which selected recent artists and projects have used water to interpret new public art policies and/or bypass art-deficient urban designs. In zones of flux and uncertainty, historical, phenomenological and ecological themes are explored, as is the observation that infrastructure-integrated public art can enable the interested viewer to experience the breadth and specificities of an otherwise-alienating sprawling metropolis.
Sebastian Zenker, Suzanne C Beckmann
Journal of Brand Management (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/bm.2013.6 [view abstract]
Cities invest large sums of money in ‘flagship projects’, with the aim of not only developing the city as such, but also changing the perceptions of the city brand towards a desired image. The city of Hamburg, Germany, is currently investing €575 million in order to build a new symphony hall (Elbphilharmonie), €400 million to develop the ‘International Architectural Fair’ and it is also considering candidature again for the ‘Olympic Games’ in 2024/2028. As assessing the image effects of such projects is rather difficult, this article introduces an improved version of the Brand Concept Map approach, which was originally developed for product brands. An experimental design was used to first measure the Hamburg brand as such and then the changes in the brand perceptions after priming the participants (N=209) for one of the three different flagship projects. The findings reveal several important structural differences for the brand image dimensions of the city contingent upon the type of flagship project. Hence, this study shows (i) that different flagship projects have different image effects for the city brand and (ii) provides a novel method for measuring perceived place brand image effects of both ongoing and future flagship projects.
Mary Jo Hatch, James Rubin
Journal of Brand Management (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2550053 [view abstract]
An increasing body of scholarship, particularly in marketing, has drawn on a wide variety of theoretical traditions to address the implications of brands as social texts. Taken together this research proposes that: brands exist as symbols in popular culture with their meanings contingent on particular cultural contexts; that consumers may resist meanings originally conceived by managers or agencies; that brands embody stories constructed both by the companies that produce them and by their consumers; that brands have histories. In this paper, we engage these topics from the perspective of hermeneutical inquiry. The linguistic, historical tradition in hermeneutics — which continues to play a role in contemporary theory through, for example, reader response and reception theory — offers a rich interpretive tradition and method that contributes to our developing understanding of brands. Following from recent research in marketing, we regard brands to be one of the most text-like artifacts of contemporary business culture and therefore appropriate for a demonstration of the potential contribution of hermeneutics. To this end, we emphasise three hermeneutic concepts: intention, the horizon of expectations and reception. From these categories, we derive the more pragmatic terms of trace, arc and collective interpretation to move towards a hermeneutical theory of branding. This approach allows us to explain the ways in which the meaning of a brand changes over time (giving branding a historical dimension) and how managerial intention intersects interpretations made by multiple constituencies. We contend that a deeper understanding of brands in terms of their past and present meaning increases the opportunities to realise a brand's potential.
Gary Warnaby, David Bennison
Place Branding (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.6000037 [view abstract]
This paper investigates the role of planned shopping centres in the marketing activities of towns and cities. Based on data from a wider programme of research on the marketing of towns and cities as shopping destinations, the paper considers the extent to which planned shopping centres located in traditional urban retail areas engage in the practice of ‘co-branding’ with the towns/cities within which they are located. Data from qualitative interviews with shopping centre managers, a survey of managers of planned shopping centres in the 173 top urban retail destinations in the UK (Management Horizons Europe, 1998) and analysis of logos and slogans of these shopping centres indicate that some degree of reciprocity does occur in the marketing activities between the different levels of urban place marketing as identified by van den Berg and Braun (1999). Various directions for further research are identified.
Giovanni Frazzetto, Suzanne Anker
Nature Reviews Neuroscience (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn2736 [view abstract]
Neuroscience addresses questions that, if resolved, will reveal aspects of our individuality. Therefore neuroscientific knowledge is not solely constrained within laboratories, but readily captures the attention of the public at large. Ideas, concepts and images in neuroscience widely circulate in culture and are portrayed in literature, film, works of art, the mass media and commercial products, therefore shaping social values and consumer practices. The interaction between art and science offers an opportunity to make the scientific community and the public aware of the social and ethical implications of the scientific advances in neuroscience.
Place Branding and Public Diplomacy (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pb.2012.13 [view abstract]
This article extends on ongoing discussions of nation branding in Asia from a conceptual and practitioner viewpoint. Insights on assertive and accommodative branding strategies are compiled from the cross-examination public diplomacy statements of Asian national leaders on the issue of Westernization, and the corresponding assessments of the nations by nation branding analysts. The review comprises a vignette of the general positions communicated by a cross-section of Asian nations, inclusive of China, Iran, Singapore, South Korea, a profile of small Middle East nations and the United States’ position in Asia. The aim of this review is twofold. First, I seek to examine the convergences and divergences in the preferred branding positions of Asian nations, as informed by the specific structural-historical conditions of a nation, despite the common reference to these nations as ‘Asian’. In this, I found the distinctions between large and smaller nations, rather than cultural distance/proximity. Second, I seek the conceptual clarification of a nation branding analysis of public diplomacy exchanges, its distinctions from public diplomacy and its utility as a subfield of nation branding.
International Politics (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ip.2011.24 [view abstract]
In the by now extended debate about the end of the Cold War and its causes, very little attention has been paid to the role played by historical memory in helping shape the way policy-makers approached the collapse of the post-war order. As this article shows, many, if not most policy elites at the time, confronted the passing of the old world with a great degree of caution and trepidation; and one of the key reasons they did so, it is argued here, is because of their reading of the past. This reading, I go on to suggest, made many of them especially cautious and fearful when faced with great change. In the end of course these changes proved irresistible, and for liberals at least seemed to augur in more peaceful and prosperous times. However, as we shall see here, this unguarded optimism was not much in evidence as the old international system and the other superpower collapsed after 1989. Looking backwards rather than forwards, policy-makers approached the new dawn with much less enthusiasm and optimism than their public pronouncements seemed to indicate at the time or later.
Eleonora Cattaneo, Carolina Guerini
Journal of Brand Management (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/bm.2012.16 [view abstract]
This study focuses on retro branding practices, that is, the revival of brands belonging to a prior historical period. We verified empirically the relationship between a retro branding strategy leveraging nostalgic brand associations and consumer preferences for retro brands, relative to newer options. We found that consumers appear to prefer updated brands with nostalgic associations to pure retro brands. More tangible and updated product features clearly communicated in the retro branding strategy will drive preferences, confirming that nostalgic brand associations alone cannot be the ‘hub’ of a retro branding strategy.
Simon Bayly, Lisa Baraitser
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/sub.2008.17 [view abstract]
This paper seeks to examine two particular and peculiar practices in which the mediation of apparently direct encounters is made explicit and is systematically theorized: that of the psychoanalytic dialogue with its inward focus and private secluded setting, and that of theatre and live performance, with its public focus. Both these practices are concerned with ways in which “live encounters” impact on their participants, and hence with the conditions under which, and the processes whereby, the coming-together of human subjects results in recognizable personal or social change. Through the rudimentary analysis of two anecdotes, we aim to think these encounters together in a way that explores what each borrows from the other, the psychoanalytic in the theatrical, the theatrical in the psychoanalytic, figuring each practice as differently committed to what we call the “publication of liveness”. We argue that these “redundant” forms of human contact continue to provide respite from group acceptance of narcissistic failure in the post-democratic era through their offer of a practice of waiting.
Juan A Martínez
Latino Studies (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/lst.2012.61 [view abstract]
Due in large part to the nineteenth-century wars of independence and twentieth-century dictatorships, not to mention opportunities to study and travel abroad, Cuban artists have lived and worked outside of the island for short and extended periods of time. One of the most iconic images of nineteenth-century Cuban art, Juana Borrero's Los Pilluelos , 1895 was painted in Key West, and Eduardo Abela's Triunfo de la Rumba, 1928 and Víctor Manuel's La Gitana Tropical , 1929, two of the seminal paintings of Cuban modern art, were done in Paris.
Latino Studies (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600007 [view abstract]
This article examines the specificity of Central Americans in the United States in relation to issues of identity, history and politics. It also examines the contrasting relationship between Central Americans in the United States and Mexican immigrants, by historicizing the dynamics of power between these two Mesoamerican regions since colonial times, with the idea of advancing our understanding of inter-Latino relations in the United States. The article also seeks to address the invisibility of Central American refugees in the United States, arguing that the historical memory of rape and violence on the part of refugees from Guatemala and El Salvador has led Central Americans in the United States to keep themselves on the margins of social visibility and presentability. This strategic non-identity, which to some extent is historically related to Central Americans’ subordination to Mexico, as well as to their illegal status within the US, contrasts the identity politics of reaffirmation that constituted the Chicano and Nuyorican movements, with the present day situation of ‘Central American-Americans.’
Alexander R Cuthbert
Urban Design International (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.udi.9000200 [view abstract]
From the time cities first evolved, they have been subject to human intervention at every level of activity – in other words they have been designed. The following paper argues that since this process was formalized at the beginning of the 20th century as urban design, its rationale as a discipline has been fraught with consequence. It has been continuously defined as other – half way between the two professions of architecture and urban planning. This unjustified otherness has been reflected in approaches to urban design theory. Even the middle ground which urban design is supposed to occupy is an amalgam of architectural and planning ideologies and practices. The following paper takes a hard look at the last 50 years, exposing the most serious attempts to synthesize or theorize significant urban design paradigms. While each attempt has much to commend it, variously exhibiting great insight, dedication, knowledge and scholarship, I feel that the collective result has been a generalized anarchy of creative ideas that bear little coherence, either internally or collectively. Whether this is ‘good’ or ‘bad’ is beside the point, it is where evolution has brought us. Nor does this situation signify any immunity on my part to the uses of disorder, chance and chaos, in the spirit that ‘there is no idea, however ancient and absurd, that is not capable of improving our knowledge’ (Feyerabend, 1975, p. 33). The hypothesis explored below proposes that the failure has an obvious cause – there has been no concerted attempt within the discipline to link the material creation or ‘designing’ of urban space and form to fundamental societal processes. More importantly, this linkage is desirable, and can be made. The fracture has many causes – historical, professional, ideological, academic, egocentric, as well as misplaced idealism. Rather than pursuing the quest for an integrated theory which has little possibility of success, I argue that a better outcome already exists in spatial political economy, itself a somewhat anarchistic pursuit, but one of better quality. The framework of ideas which it encompasses offers urban design both legitimation and theoretical coherence. In so doing, urban design can exit the nefarious middle ground allocated to it by architecture and planning. Instead, it can connect directly to the economic, political, social and cultural processes which structure social life.
URBAN DESIGN International (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.udi.9000129 [view abstract]