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Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch proposed a model of working memory in 1974, in an attempt to describe a more accurate model of short-term memory.

Baddeley & Hitch proposed their tripartite working memory model as an alternative to the short-term store in Atkinson & Shiffrin\'s multi-store memory model (1968). This model is later expanded upon by Baddeley and other co-workers and has become the dominant view in the field of working memory. However, alternative models are developing (see working memory) providing a different perspective on the working memory system.

The original model of Baddeley & Hitch was composed of three main components; the central executive which acts as supervisory system and controls the flow of information from and to its slave systems: the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. The slave systems are short-term storage systems dedicated to a content domain (verbal and visuo-spatial, respectively). In 2000 Baddeley added a third slave system to his model, the episodic buffer.

Baddeley & Hitch\'s argument for the distinction of two domain-specific slave systems in the older model was derived from experimental findings with dual-task paradigms. Performance of two simultaneous tasks requiring the use of two separate perceptual domains (i.e. a visual and a verbal task) is nearly as efficient as performance of the tasks individually. In contrast, when a person tries to carry out two tasks simultaneously that use the same perceptual domain, performance is less efficient than when performing the tasks individually.

(from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baddeley\'s_model_of_working_memory)

Executive/Cognitive Control
RPoldrack about five years ago.

Constituent Assertions


  • Phonological loop is a kind of rehearsal loop.   View Assertion »
  • Phonological loop is a part of auditory working memory.   View Assertion »
  • Auditory working memory is a kind of working memory.   View Assertion »
  • Episodic buffer is a part of working memory.   View Assertion »
  • Visuospatial sketch pad is a part of visual working memory.   View Assertion »
  • Visuospatial sketch pad is a part of spatial working memory.   View Assertion »
  • Spatial working memory is a kind of working memory.   View Assertion »
  • Visual working memory is a kind of working memory.   View Assertion »
  • Central executive is a part of working memory.   View Assertion »
  • Central executive is measured by the contrast of dual minus control in the dual-task paradigm.   View Assertion »
  • Phonological loop is measured by the contrast of suppression - control (articulatory suppression effect) in the articulatory suppression task.   View Assertion »
  • Phonological assembly is a kind of phonological processing.   View Assertion »
REFERENCED TERMS: working memory (5) • phonological loop (3) • central executive (2) • visuospatial sketch pad (2) • visual working memory (2) • spatial working memory (2) • auditory working memory (2) • phonological assembly (1) • phonological processing (1) • articulatory suppression task (1) • dual-task paradigm (1) • rehearsal loop (1) • episodic buffer (1)

User Discussion


"This is just a start - still need to add tasks that measure other components and details about each component."
RPoldrack (about five years ago)

Term Bibliography

Working memory: theories, models, and controversies.
Baddeley A
Annual review of psychology (Annu Rev Psychol)
2012 Jan 10
Citation added by RPoldrack about five years ago
Citation Profile

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